The welfare models adopted in the U.K. set a foundation of benefits and housing policies. How?
Harloe (1995) categorised social housing welfare models into two general models: the residual model and the mass model. These depend on the degree of state intervention and the population of recipients. The residual model refers to cases where social housing is only applied to a small group of citizens, which tend to be the poorest in society. On the other hand, the mass model aims to provide a large-scale social housing program to not only the poor but also the middle-class.
Image © College of Medicine
The U.K. social housing system has undergone seven phases (UWE, 2008):
Housing crises in large cities in the U.K. such as London started to emerge in the 18th Century, when the nation began to experience rapid urbanisation resulting in mass internal migration from rural areas into the cities (White, 2009).
Slum in the 19th Century in London
Photo © BBC
Council estates constructed in different eras are of different quality due to different contemporary building techniques and trends, and the target recipients of the homes.
Inter-war council estate: Ossulston Street Estate in King’s Cross, London, built in 1927-31
Image © London Metropolitan Archives (City of London)
What are the supply, pricing, application and allocation mechanisms for social housing in London?
The quarterly average housing price in London has followed an overall upward trend since the late 1990s, with dips in price that occurred during the 2008 Global Financial Crisis. For most years in the past 25 years, new build properties tend to trade at price premiums than non-new-builds.
Based on Adapted from HM Land Registry (2019) data
Our challenges in social housing crisis is beyond the supply issue. What are they?
Challenge 1: The symbolic meaning of homeownership, amplified through Thatcher's 'property-owning democracy', distinguishes the dominant and the dominated in the housing market. The former are individuals with high property wealth and the latter are ones that are not able to afford renting their own properties. The social stigmatization, as a result of welfare and social constructs, goes against the original objective of social housing provision.
Image © Meek